English words that change their meaning depending on stress placement

by Jakub Marian

Tip: See my guide to the Most Common Pronunciation Errors in English. It will teach you about commonly mispronounced words, pro­nunci­ation patterns, and the basics of English phonology.

English orthography is often ambiguous. For example, the word “read” can be pronounced either /riːd/ (“reed”) or as /rɛd/ (“red”) depending on whether it refers to the present or the past tense.

There is a large class of such words characterized by ambiguity in stress placements. When a word can be stressed on two different syllables, stress placement determines the part of speech of the word (e.g. whether it is a verb or a noun). As a rule of thumb, if the stress is on the second syllable, the word is usually a verb.

Here’s a fairly exhaustive list of such words, with pronunciation given in the international phonetic alphabet (in which stress is indicated by a small vertical line, similar to an apostrophe). Note that the abbreviations “US” and “UK” indicate whether the preceding pronunciation refers to American or British English:

absent; /ˈæbsənt/ (ADJECTIVE) means “not present”; /æbˈsɛnt/ (VERB) is mostly used in the phrase “to absent yourself” meaning “not to go to a place where one is expected to be”.
accent; /ˈæksənt/ (NOUN) is the way people in a particular area speak; /əkˈsɛnt/ (VERB) (MOSTLY UK) means “to emphasize” (it is often pronounced the same as the noun in American English).
addict; /ˈædɪkt/ (NOUN) is a person addicted to something (such as heroin); /əˈdɪkt/ means “to cause someone to become addicted”.
address; /ˈædrɛs/ (NOUN) (US ONLY) is the name of the place where you live; /əˈdrɛs/ (VERB) means “to direct a speech to someone” (in the UK, both meanings are usually pronounced /əˈdrɛs/).
affect; /əˈfɛkt/ (VERB) means “to influence”; /ˈæfɛkt/ (NOUN) is used in psychology for “a subjective feeling experienced in response to a stimulus”.
affix; /ˈæfɪks/ (NOUN) is a grammatical term for a group of letters added to a root word; /əˈfɪks/ (VERB) means “to attach”.
alloy; /ˈælɔɪ/ (NOUN) is a mixture of metals; /əˈlɔɪ/ (VERB) means “to mix metals”.
ally; /ˈælaɪ/ (NOUN) is a country that supports another country; /əˈlaɪ/ (VERB) means “to give your support to another country”.
attribute; /ˈætrɪbjuːt/ (NOUN) is a characteristic of something; /əˈtrɪbjuːt/ (VERB) means “to express that something was created by someone”.
combine; /kəmˈbaɪn/ (VERB) means “to bring together”; /ˈkɒmbaɪn/ UK, /ˈkɑːmbaɪn/ US (NOUN) is a shorter name for a “combine harvester”.
commune; /ˈkɒmjuːn/ UK, /ˈkɑːmjuːn/ US (NOUN) is a group of people living together and sharing responsibilities; /kəˈmjuːn/ (VERB) is used in “commune with somebody” which means “to silently share emotions with somebody”.
compact; /ˈkɒmpækt/ UK, /ˈkɑːmpækt/ US (ADJECTIVE) means “including many things in a small space”; /kəmˈpækt/ (VERB) means “to compress”.
complex; /ˈkɒmplɛks/ UK, /ˈkɑːmplɛks/ US (NOUN) is a (psychological) problem or a collection of buildings; in some dialects (both in British and American English) the adjective “complex” meaning “not simple” is pronounced as /kəmˈplɛks/; in others, it is pronounced the same as the noun.
compound; /ˈkɒmpaʊnd/ UK, /ˈkɑːmpaʊnd/ US (NOUN) is a thing consisting of two or more separate parts (or an adjective describing such a thing); /kəmˈpaʊnd/ (VERB) means “to make something that is already bad become even worse”, usually used in the passive as “to be compounded”. “To be compounded” can also mean “to be formed from”.
compress; /kəmˈprɛs/ (VERB) means “to press or squeeze together”; /ˈkɒmprɛs/ UK, /ˈkɑːmprɛs/ US (NOUN) is a piece of cloth applied to a body part to reduce pain (a cold compress), reduce muscle fatigue (a warm compress) etc.
conduct; /kənˈdʌkt/ (VERB) means “to manage, carry on” (e.g. “to conduct a meeting”) or “to lead” (e.g. “to conduct an orchestra). /ˈkɒndʌkt/ UK, /ˈkɑːndʌkt/ US (NOUN) is a person’s behaviour.
confine(s); /kənˈfaɪn/ (VERB) means “to keep somebody or something within certain limits”; /ˈkɒnfaɪnz/ UK, /ˈkɑːnfaɪnz/ US (NOUN) is used only in the plural and means “limits, borders” (for example “confines of human knowledge”).
conflict; /ˈkɒnflɪkt/ UK, /ˈkɑːnflɪkt/ US (NOUN) means “a disagreement”; /kənˈflɪkt/ (VERB) means “to be incompatible with”.
conscript; /ˈkɒnskrɪpt/ is someone who compulsorily joined the armed forces of a country; /kənˈskrɪpt/ means “to become a conscript”.
conserve; /kənˈsɜːv/ UK, /kənˈsɝːv/ US (VERB) means “to use as little as possible” (e.g. “to conserve energy”) or “to protect something from being destroyed” (e.g. “to conserve wildlife”); /ˈkɒnsɜːv/ UK, /ˈkɑːnsɝːv/ US (NOUN) is synonymous with “whole fruit jam”. Unlike in other languages, it isn’t synonymous with a can (an aluminium container).
console; /ˈkɒnsəʊl/ UK or /ˈkɑːnsoʊl/ US (NOUN) is “a cabinet (often for a TV) designed to stand on the floor” or “a device for playing video games”; /kənˈsəʊl/ UK or /kənˈsoʊl/ US (VERB) means “to make someone feel better”.
consort; /ˈkɒnsɔːt/ UK, /ˈkɑːnsɔːrt/ US (NOUN) is used mainly in “the queen consort”, meaning “the wife of a king”, and “the prince consort”, meaning “the husband of a queen” (rarely also “the king consort”), and sometimes also “the princess consort”, meaning “the wife of a prince”; /kənˈsɔːt/ UK, /kənˈsɔːrt/ US means “to spend time in someone’s company”, usually meant contemptuously, for example “the duke consorted with prostitutes”.
construct; /kənˈstrʌkt/ (VERB) means “to build”; /ˈkɒnstrʌkt/ UK or /ˈkɑːnstrʌkt/ US (NOUN) is something constructed or a concept.
consult; /kənˈsʌlt/ (VERB) means “to seek opinion or advice”; /ˈkɒnsʌlt/ UK, /ˈkɑːnsʌlt/ US (NOUN) is an obsolete term meaning a decision or an agreement, or, in the US, also “a visit” (e.g. to a doctor).
content; /ˈkɒntɛnt/ UK, /ˈkɑːntɛnt/ US (NOUN) is “the contained material”; /kənˈtɛnt/ (ADJECTIVE) means “satisfied” (it can also be a verb meaning “to satisfy”).
contest; /ˈkɒntɛst/ UK, /ˈkɑːntɛst/ US (NOUN) is a competition; /kənˈtɛst/ (VERB) is used in “to contest something” which means “to take part in something in order to win”, or it can mean “to formally oppose something”, for example “to contest a will”.
contract; /ˈkɒntrækt/ UK, /ˈkɑːntrækt/ US (NOUN) is an official agreement; /kənˈtrækt/ (VERB) is the opposite to “expand”, or it can mean “to get an illness” (e.g. “to contract AIDS”).
contrast; /ˈkɒntrɑːst/ UK, /ˈkɑːntræst/ US (NOUN) is “a difference in brightness”; /kənˈtrɑːst/ UK, /kənˈtræst/ US (VERB) means “to show the difference” (in some US dialects, both meanings are pronounced as the noun given here).
converse; /kənˈvɜːs/ UK, /kənˈvɝːs/ US (VERB) means “to have a conversation”; /ˈkɒnvɜːs/ UK, /ˈkɑːnvɝːs/ US (NOUN) is the opposite or reverse of something.
convert; /kənˈvɜːt/ UK, /kənˈvɝːt/ US (VERB) means “to change something from one form to another”; /ˈkɒnvɜːt/ UK, /ˈkɑːnvɝːt/ US (NOUN) is a person who changed his or her religion.
convict; /kənˈvɪkt/ (VERB) means “to find someone guilty in court”; /ˈkɒnvɪkt/ UK, /ˈkɑːnvɪkt/ US (NOUN) is a person who has been convicted.
decrease; /dɪˈkriːs/ (VERB) means “to become smaller”; /ˈdiːkriːs/ (NOUN) is “a reduction”.
defect; /dɪˈfɛkt/ (VERB) is used in “to defect from” which means “to leave a group to join an enemy”, for example “to defect from a political party before elections”; /ˈdiːfɛkt/ (NOUN) is a fault that makes something imperfect (but the same pronunciation as for the verb is also common).
desert; /ˈdɛzət/ UK, /ˈdɛzɚt/ US (NOUN) is a large area of dry land; /dɪˈzɜːt/ UK, /dɪˈzɝːt/ US (VERB) means “to abandon something”.
detail; /ˈdiːteɪl/ (NOUN) is “something small or negligible enough”; in the US, /dɪˈteɪl/ is a verb meaning “to explain in detail” (in the UK the verb sounds the same as the noun).
dictate; /dɪkˈteɪt/ (VERB) means “to say something for someone else to write down” (for example “to dictate a letter to a secretary”) or “to tell somebody what to do”; /ˈdɪkteɪt/ (NOUN) is a rule that one must obey.
digest; /daɪˈdʒɛst/ or /dɪˈdʒɛst/ means “to change food to a form the body can use” (e.g. “humans cannot digest grass”) or “to think about something in order to understand it”; /ˈdaɪdʒɛst/ (NOUN) is a short report containing the most important information.
discard; /dɪsˈkɑːd/ UK, /dɪsˈkɑːrd/ US means “to get rid of something one no longer needs”; /ˈdɪskɑːd/ UK, /ˈdɪskɑːrd/ US (NOUN) is a thing no longer wanted and thrown away (usually in a card game).
discharge; /dɪsˈtʃɑːdʒ/ UK, /dɪsˈtʃɑːrdʒ/ US (VERB) means “to release” (for example, “to discharge someone from a hospital” means “to give him official permission to leave”); /ˈdɪstʃɑːdʒ/ UK, /ˈdɪstʃɑːrdʒ/ US (NOUN) is the act of releasing, for example “a discharge of toxic waste”.
discount; /ˈdɪskaʊnt/ (NOUN) is the amount of money which something costs less than usual; /dɪsˈkaʊnt/ (VERB) means either “to reduce price of something” or “to dismiss, to consider something unimportant”, as in “we cannot discount the possibility of further attacks” (in the US, the verb is sometimes pronounced the same as the noun).
discourse; /ˈdɪskɔːs/ UK, /ˈdɪskɔːrs/ US (NOUN) is a serious discussion; /dɪsˈkɔːs/ UK, /dɪsˈkɔːrs/ US (VERB) means “to talk long about a subject you know well”.
escort; /ɪˈskɔːt/ UK, /ɪˈskɔːrt/ US (VERB) means “to go with somebody in order to protect or guard them”; /ˈɛskɔːt/ UK, /ˈɛskɔːrt/ US (NOUN) is a person or a group of people who escort somebody.
essay; /ˈɛseɪ/ (NOUN) is a short piece of writing by a student; /ɛˈseɪ/ (VERB) is a literary term meaning “to try to do”.
excise; /ɪkˈsaɪz/ (VERB) means “to remove completely”; /ˈɛksaɪz/ is a tax on specific goods.
exploit; /ɪkˈsplɔɪt/ (VERB) means “to use someone or something for your own advantage”; /ˈɛksplɔɪt/ (NOUN) is a brave or interesting act.
export; /ɪksˈpɔːt/ UK, /ɪksˈpɔːrt/ US (VERB) means “to sell goods to a foreign country”; /ˈɛkspɔːt/ UK or /ˈɛkspɔːrt/ US (NOUN) is “something that is exported”.
extract; /ɪksˈtrækt/ (VERB) means “to get something out of something else”; /ˈɛkstrækt/ (NOUN) is “something extracted”.
ferment; /fəˈmɛnt/ UK, /fɚˈmɛnt/ US (VERB) means “to experience a chemical change because of the action of yeasts”; /ˈfɜːmɛnt/ UK, /ˈfɝːmɛnt/ US (NOUN) is a state of political and social confusion and excitement (for example a country can be in ferment).
frequent; /ˈfriːkwənt/ (ADJECTIVE) means “happening often”; /friˈkwɛnt/ (VERB) means “to visit often”.
gallant; /ˈgælənt/ (ADJECTIVE); a man is gallant if he gives polite attention to women; /gəˈlænt/ (NOUN) is an old-fashioned term for a man that is gallant (it is sometimes also pronounced the same as the adjective).
impact; /ˈɪmpækt/ (NOUN) is “a forceful collision”; /ɪmˈpækt/ (VERB) means “to affect”.
implant; /ɪmˈplɑːnt/ UK, /ɪmˈplænt/ US (VERB) means “to fix firmly” or “to insert into the body”; /ˈɪmplɑːnt/ UK, /ˈɪmplænt/ US (NOUN) is “something surgically implanted in the body”.
import; /ɪmˈpɔːt/ UK, /ɪmˈpɔːrt/ US (VERB) means “to bring a product from another country to one’s own country”; /ˈɪmpɔːt/ UK, /ˈɪmpɔːrt/ US (NOUN) is the act of importing a product (or the product itself).
impress; /ɪmˈprɛs/ (VERB) means “to make someone feel admiration for you”; /ˈɪmprɛs/ (NOUN) is the act of impressing.
imprint; /ˈɪmprɪnt/ (NOUN) is a mark made by stamping something onto a surface; /ɪmˈprɪnt/ (VERB) means “to have a great effect on something”.
incense; /ˈɪnsɛns/ (NOUN) is a substance producing a pleasant smell when it is burning (it is often used in churches, for example); /ɪnˈsɛns/ (VERB) means “to get somebody very angry”.
incline; /ɪnˈklaɪn/ (VERB) means “to behave in a particular way”; /ˈɪnklaɪn/ (NOUN) is a slope.
increase; /ɪnˈkriːs/ (VERB) means “to become larger”; /ˈɪnkriːs/ (NOUN) is “an amount by which something increased”.
indent; /ɪnˈdɛnt/ (VERB) means “to start a line of text further from the edge than other lines”; /ˈɪndɛnt/ (NOUN) is an official order for goods or equipment.
inlay; /ɪnˈleɪ/ (VERB) means “to decorate the surface of something by putting pieces of wood or metal into it in such a way that the resulting surface remains smooth”; /ˈɪnleɪ/ (NOUN) is a pattern of such a decoration.
insert; /ɪnˈsɜːt/ UK, /ɪnˈsɝːt/ US (VERB) means “to put something into something else”; /ˈɪnsɜːt/ UK, /ˈɪnsɝːt/ US (NOUN) is usually an extra section added to a newspaper or magazine (but it can mean something that is put into something else in general).
insult; /ɪnˈsʌlt/ (VERB) means “to offend someone”; /ˈɪnsʌlt/ (NOUN) is an action intended to be rude.
interchange; /ˈɪntətʃeɪndʒ/ UK, /ˈɪntɚtʃeɪndʒ/ US (NOUN) is the act of sharing or exchanging something; /ˌɪntəˈtʃeɪndʒ/ UK, /ˌɪntɚˈtʃeɪndʒ/ US (VERB) means “to share or exchange ideas”.
intern; /ɪnˈtɜːn/ UK, /ɪnˈtɝːn/ US (VERB) means “to put somebody in prison during a war without charging them with a crime”; /ˈɪntɜːn/ UK, /ˈɪntɝːn/ US (NOUN) is a student of medicine working at a hospital to get further experience.
invalid; /ɪnˈvælɪd/ (ADJECTIVE) is the opposite of “valid”; /ˈɪnvəlɪd/ or /ˈɪnvəliːd/ (NOUN) is a person that needs others who take care of him or her. The latter pronunciation can also be a verb meaning “to force somebody to leave armed forces because of injury”.
invite; /ɪnˈvaɪt/ (VERB) means “to ask somebody to come to a social event”; /ˈɪnvaɪt/ is an informal word for “invitation”.
mismatch; /ˈmɪsmætʃ/ (NOUN) is a combination of things that do not go well together; /ˌmɪsˈmætʃ/ (VERB) means “to fail to match”.
object; /ˈɒbdʒɪkt/ UK or /ˈɑːbdʒɪkt/ US (NOUN) is a thing or the goal of something; /əbˈdʒɛkt/ (VERB) means “to disagree with something”.
overlap; /ˌəʊvəˈlæp/ UK, /ˌoʊvɚˈlæp/ US (VERB); if two things overlap, part of one thing covers part of the other; /ˈəʊvəlæp/ UK, /ˈoʊvɚlæp/ US (NOUN) is a shared area (between two objects).
overlay; /ˈəʊvəleɪ/ UK, /ˈoʊvɚleɪ/ US (NOUN) is something put on top of something else; /ˌəʊvəˈleɪ/ UK, /ˌoʊvɚˈleɪ/ US (VERB) means “to put something on top of the surface of something else”.
perfect; /ˈpɜːfɪkt/ UK, /ˈpɝːfɪkt/ US (ADJECTIVE) means “excellent; precise”; /pəˈfɛkt/ UK or /pɚˈfɛkt/ US (VERB) means “to make perfect”.
permit; /pəˈmɪt/ UK, /pɚˈmɪt/ US (VERB) means “to allow”; /ˈpɜːmɪt/ UK, /ˈpɝːmɪt/ US (NOUN) is an official document that gives somebody the right to do something.
pervert; /ˈpɜːvɜːt/ UK, /ˈpɝːvɝːt/ US (NOUN) is someone whose sexual behaviour is considered unacceptable; /pəˈvɜːt/ UK, /pɚˈvɝːt/ US (VERB) means “to change something in a bad way”.
present; /ˈprɛzənt/ is either an adjective meaning “relating to now” or “located in the vicinity” or a noun meaning either “the current period of time” or “a gift”; /prɪˈzɛnt/ is a verb meaning “to show”.
proceed(s); /prəˈsiːd/ UK, /proʊˈsiːd/ US (VERB) means “to continue doing something”; /ˈprəʊsiːdz/ UK, /ˈproʊsiːdz/ US (NOUN) is used only in the plural form as “proceeds of” meaning “revenue from”, e.g. “proceeds of the concert went to charity”.
produce; /prəˈdjuːs/ UK, /prəˈduːs/ US (VERB) means “to make or grow something”; /ˈprɒdjuːs/ UK, /ˈprɑːduːs/ or /ˈproʊduːs/ US (NOUN) means “things that have been produced”, usually in connection with farming.
progress; /ˈprəʊgrɛs/ UK or /ˈprɑːgrɛs/ US (NOUN) means “a development of something”; /prəˈgrɛs/ (VERB) means “to advance”.
project; /ˈprɒdʒɛkt/ UK, /ˈprɑːdʒɛkt/ US (NOUN) is “something that is planned”; /prəˈdʒɛkt/ (VERB) means “to plan something”.
protest; /ˈprəʊtɛst/ UK, /ˈproʊtɛst/ US (NOUN) is an expression of disagreement with something; /prəˈtɛst/ (VERB) means “to express disagreement” (it can also be pronounced the same as the noun in the US).
purport; /pəˈpɔːt/ UK, /pɚˈpɔːrt/ US (VERB) is used especially in “purport to be something” which means “to claim to be something”; /ˈpɜːpɔːt/ UK, /ˈpɝːpɔːrt/ US (NOUN); the “purport of something” is “the general meaning of something”.
rebel; /rɪˈbɛl/ (VERB) means “to fight against an authority”; /ˈrɛbəl/ (NOUN) is someone who rebels against something.
recoil; /rɪˈkɔɪl/ (VERB) means “to move quickly backwards or away from something”; /ˈriːkɔɪl/ (NOUN) is a sudden movement backwards.
record; /ˈrɛkɔːd/ UK, /ˈrɛkɚd/ US (NOUN) is “an information put into a physical medium” or “the extreme value of an achievement (in sport)”; /rɪˈkɔːd/ UK, /rəˈkɔrd/ US (VERB) means “to make a recording of something”.
refill; /ˌriːˈfɪl/ (VERB) means “to fill something again”; /ˈriːfɪl/ (NOUN) is something used to refill a container; also, it means “another drink of the same type”.
refund; /ˈriːfʌnd/ (NOUN) is a sum of money to be paid back; /rɪˈfʌnd/ (VERB) means “to give somebody back their money for something they bought”.
refuse; /rɪˈfjuːz/ (VERB) means “disallow something”; /ˈrɛfjuːs/ (NOUN) is waste material.
reject; /rɪˈdʒɛkt/ (VERB) means “to refuse something”; /ˈriːdʒɛkt/ (NOUN) is something that cannot be used because it is faulty or someone who is not considered member of a team, society etc.
remake; /ˈriːmeɪk/ (NOUN) is a new version of an old film or song; /ˌriːˈmeɪk/ (VERB) means “to create a remake”.
reprint; /ˌriːˈprɪnt/ (VERB) means “to print (usually a book) again without changes”; /ˈriːprɪnt/ (NOUN) is a book that has been reprinted.
retake; /ˌriːˈteɪk/ (VERB) is used especially in military; it means “to take control of something (e.g. a town) again”; /ˈriːteɪk/ (NOUN) is the act of filming a scene again, because the first take was not good enough.
retard; /rɪˈtɑːd/ UK, /rɪˈtɑːrd/ US (VERB) means “to make something progress slower”; /ˈriːtɑːd/ UK, /ˈriːtɑːrd/ US (NOUN) is a slang term for a mentally retarded person.
segment; /ˈsɛgmənt/ (NOUN) is a part of something (and also a geometric figure consisting of two points connected by a straight line); /sɛgˈment/ (VERB) means “to divide into segments”.
subject; /ˈsʌbdʒɪkt/ or /ˈsʌbdʒɛkt/ (NOUN) is a thing or person being discussed (it can also be an adjective used in “subject to something” which means “to be affected by something”); /səbˈdʒɛkt/ (VERB) means “to bring a country under control” (for example “Germany subjected most of Europe during WWII”); “to be subjected to something” means “to be affected by something”.
survey; /ˈsɜːveɪ/ UK, /ˈsɝːveɪ/ US (NOUN) is finding opinions of people by asking questions; /səˈveɪ/ UK, /sɚˈveɪ/ US (VERB) means “to look carefully at something”.
suspect; /səˈspɛkt/ (VERB) means “to think that somebody or something is guilty of something without having a definite proof”; /ˈsʌspɛkt/ (NOUN) is a person who is suspected of a crime.
torment; /tɔːˈmɛnt/ UK, /tɔːrˈmɛnt/ US (VERB) means “to make somebody suffer”; /ˈtɔːmɛnt/ UK, /ˈtɔːrmɛnt/ US (NOUN) is extreme suffering.
transfer; /trænsˈfɜːr/ UK, /trænsˈfɝː/ US (VERB) means “to move from one place to another”; /ˈtrænsfɜːr/ UK, /ˈtrænsfɝː/ US (NOUN) is the act of moving somebody from one place to another.
transplant; /trænsˈplɑːnt/ UK, /trænsˈplænt/ US (VERB) means “to take an organ from one organism and put it into another”; /ˈtrænsplɑːnt/ UK, /ˈtrænsplænt/ US (NOUN) is either an operation during which a an organ is transplanted or the organ that is being transplanted.
transport; /trænˈspɔːt/ UK, /trænˈspɔːrt/ US (VERB) means “to take something from one place to another”; /ˈtrænspɔːt/ UK, /ˈtrænspɔːrt/ US (NOUN) is a system for carrying people or things from one place to another.
traverse; /trəˈvɜːs/ UK, /trəˈvɝːs/ US (VERB) means “to cross an area”; /ˈtrævɜːs/ UK, /ˈtrævɝːs/ US (NOUN) is a term used in mountain climbing and means “an act of moving across a steep slope”.
update; /ˌʌpˈdeɪt/ (VERB) means “to bring something up to date”; /ˈʌpdeɪt/ (NOUN) is a report that gives the most recent information on something; in computing it means also a package containing improvements for a software.
upgrade; /ʌpˈgreɪd/ (VERB) means to “make something better or more advanced”; /ˈʌpgreɪd/ (NOUN) is the new part that makes it better.
uplift; /ˌʌpˈlɪft/ (VERB) means “to make somebody feel happier”; /ˈʌplɪft/ (NOUN) is the act of something being raised.
upset; /ʌpˈsɛt/ (VERB) means “to make somebody feel unhappy” (it is also an adjective meaning “unhappy or angry”); /ˈʌpsɛt/ (NOUN) is a situation connected with difficulties.

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